Varnish is actually a type of paint. So this is the reason why it is included in the books of painting. Although paint and varnish are the same, they are very different from each other. Apart from the difference in formulations, the biggest difference between them is the texture of their vehicle or its structure. Paints are definitely thick, but not transparent, but the structure of varnish is very transparent. The surface on which the varnish is applied dries very quickly and even after drying it leaves its own transparency and glittering on the surface and this transparency separates it from other paints. It is mostly used on wood. It not only adds to the decoration and sophistication of the furniture but also protects it from the effects of weather

Rosin or gum is the main component of varnish. There are two types of rosin used in the varnish making.

  1. Hard Rosin
  2. Soft Rosin

Copal , Amber  and lakh are included while soft rosin contains juniper gum i.e. sandarac  mastic and asphalt. The most flexible and soft rosins include benzoin, almi and terpene .

The science of varnishing is actually the name of dissolving these resins in a suitable solvent in such a way that all the components are united so that they appear transparent. The consistency should dry quickly. Free from cracking or shrinking defects and able to withstand weather effects.

A varnish made in methylated spirit or alcohol should have the property, that when it is applied to wood, the rosins contained in it after the spirit evaporate

Don’t lose the transparency and shine ,also not  become a component of the relevant surface.

Varnishes made in spirits are cheaper and easier to use, but less expensive than varnishes made in oil. Varnish made in oil is superior in all respects. The greatest quality of this varnish is its smoothness and long lasting life. When the wood shrinks and expands due to the effect of cold or heat, this type of varnish shrinks and plays with it. On the contrary varnish with spirits among these factors, it loses its attributes

Types of Varnish

Varnish is generally of four types

  1. Oil varnish,
  2. turpentine varnish,
  3. spirit varnish
  4. water varnish

Oil varnish

This type of varnish uses natural glue, drying oils and fast drying

 Prepared by mixing a solvent, the resin hardens shortly after application to the surface. It is very durable. It requires a strong solvent to clean. which are generally used for such items are more affected by weather changes and require frequent polishing

Turpentine varnish

This varnish is prepared by dissolving soft types of glue in oil on wire

Most of the dammara and Mastic are added to it. This varnish dries very quickly and costs less to make, but it is not very durable and long-lasting

Spirit varnish

This type of varnish is prepared by dissolving zinc and lac in lead spirit. It is also called Lacquer . This varnish also dries very quickly and is very glossy. A major defect in it is that it soon cracks and starts to fall off. It is prepared by sun and water. This is why it is applied to wooden objects that are protected from sunlight and water

Water varnish

This varnish is made by dissolving lacquer and glue in water. For this purpose, ammonia or borax is dissolved in hot water. Then add glue etc. to make an emulsion. This varnish is rarely used in daily applications.

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