Industrial Revolution chemicals


ARSENIC TRISULFIDE


AMMONIUM CARBONATE


ALCOHOL


AMMONIUM CHLORIDE


TRIACETIN


AMMONIUM NITRATE


ANTHRACENE


ANTIMONY TRISULFIDE


AMMONIUM DI CHROMATE


BARIUM NITRATE


POTASSIUM NITRATE


POTASSIUM PERMAGNATE


PICRIC ACID


PARA- NITROANILINE


POTASSIUM BISULFITE


POTASSIUM META BI SULFITE


PECTIN


TARTARIC ACID


TRIACETIN


GELATINE


YEAST


DEXTROSE


DEXTRIN


LEAD OXIDE, RED


ZINC OXIDE


ZINC CHLORIDE


SODIUM NITRATE


SODIUM CHLORATE


SORBITOL


SOYBEAN OIL


SODIUM BICARBONATE


STARCH


CITRIC ACID


SUCROSE


SODIUM BENZOATE


SODIUM SILICOALUMINATE


SODIUM ALGINATE


SODIUM BISULFITE


SODIUM BICHROMATE


STRONTIUM CARBONATE


STRONTIUM CHROMATE


STRONTIUM NITRATE


STRONTOUM OXALATE


STRONTIUM TARTRATE


STRONTIUM OXIDE


STRONTIUM PEROXIDE


STRONTIUM PERCHLORATE


STRONTIUM CHLORATE


STRONTIUM CHLORIDE


SULFUR


FRUCTOSE


FERRIC CHLORIDE


PHOSPHORUS


CALOMEL


COCONUT OIL


COPPER SULFATE


CARBOXY METHYL CELLULOSE


CREAM OF TARTAR


COPPER CARBONATE


COPPER CHLORIDE


CAROTENE


CALCIUM CHLORIDE


CALCIUM ALGINATE


CALCIUM DIBASIC PHOSPHATE


CALCIUM PHOSPHATE MONO BASIC


CALCIUM PHODSPHATE TRI BASIC


CALCIUM BI PHOSPHATE


GLYCERIN


LACTOSE


LECITHIN


LITHIUM CHLORIDE


VANILLIN


HEXA CHLORO  ETHANE

ARSENIC TRISULFIDE

FEATURES:

  • other names for arsenic tri sulfide are: Arsenous sulfide, Arsenic sulfide, Arsenic yellow
  • It is present in the form of yellow crystals or powder
  • Arsenic tri sulfide turns red at 170 degree Celsius

Density:

  • 43 g/cm³

MELTING POINT

  • 300 degree Celsius

SOLUBILITY

  • Not soluble in water
  • dissolves in Nitric Acid and Alkaline Sulfide solution

GRADE

  • Technical, pigment, or single crystals

CAUTION

  • Poisonous in nature

Application:

  1. Used in pigment industry
  2. Also used in explosives, fire works
  3. Acts as a reducing agent
  4. Used as a semiconductor.

AMMONIUM CARBONATE

FEATURES:

  • It is also called crystal ammonia
  • Present in colorless crystalline form or white powder
  • Converts in bicarbonate when kept in moisture rich environment

SMELL

  • Has a pungent taste and smell like ammonia

 SOLUBILITY

  • Highly soluble in water

      HAZARDS

  • Ammonium Carbonate is Incombustible,
  • Its vapors cause irritation

METHOD OF PURIFICATION

Sublimation

SOURCE

It is obtained by heating calcium salt and ammonium carbonate together.

GRADES

Technical, cubes, powder, C-P, N-F, F-C-C

APPLICATION

  • It is used in the preparation of ammonium salt
  • Ammonium bicarbonate is ingredient of many medicines, particularly cough syrups
  • Also used in many bakery and confectionery items and as an important ingredient of baking soda
  • Fire extinguishing materials contain this chemical compound
  • It has a wide application in pharmaceutical, textile and ceramic industry
  • It is an important component of many organic chemicals

ALCOHOL

It is also known as ethanol, ethyl alcohol, and green alcohol, and it is uses in preparation of a number of commonly used chemicals.

 FEATURES:

  • 100% pure alcohol is also called absolute alcohol. It is present in pure form with its characteristic smell.
  • TASTE

It has a characteristic bitter taste

  • SOLUBILITY

It is highly soluble in water, methyl alcohol, ether and acetone

  • BOILING POINT

78.3 degree Celsius

 95% ALCOHOL

FEATURES:

REFRECTIVE INDEX: 1.3651

SURFACE TENSION: (at 20°C) = 23.0 m N/m 

VISCOSITY: (at 20°C) = 0.0141 Pa s

VAPOR PRESSURE:

43 mm

SPECIFIC HEAT: 0.618 KJ

FLASH POINT: 55 degree Fahrenheit

BOILING POINT: 78 degree Celsius

FLASH POINT: -117 degree Celsius

SOURCE/ PREPARATION

There are many methods of preparation of Alcohol. The most common method among all is Fermentation. It is also prepared by using ethylene.

Alcohol which is prepared by fermentation is mostly obtained by using grapes, sugar cane juice and other fruits.

GRADES

95% by volume,  absolute.

 EFFECTS

  • It is highly inflammable and catches fire easily
  • Its tolerance in air is 1000 ppm
  • Ethyl alcohol is mostly used in the medicines that affect brain, and cause drowsiness. When it reaches blood through stomach, and creates a feeling of excitement and elation. The adverse affects of alcohol leads to sleepiness and weariness in the body and with headache and sometimes vomiting. A person loses his memory and senses. If it is consumed in a large quantity, it may cause lose of consciousness and even death.

 USES:

  • It is used as a solvent to dissolve hydro carbon
  • Alcohol is used in the preparation of acetaldehyde
  • Many chemical pigments contain alcohol as one of their components
  • It is also used in the preparation of ethylene, ethyl hexanol, butadiene and acetic acid
  • Alcohol has vast application in cosmetic and pharmaceutical industry
  • It is used to preserve medicines and as an anti freezing agent
  • Explosives, transparent soaps and pigments also contain alcohol as a component.

AMMONIUM CHLORIDE

FEATURES:

It is a white colored granulated chemical compound.

 TASTE

Ammonium Chloride has a strong salty taste. It gives a cooling effect to the tongue when kept in mouth.

 SOLUBILITY

It is highly soluble in water in glycerin and less soluble in alcohol.

DENSITY

  • 543.43 g/cm³

 SOURCE

It is prepared by the reaction of a mixture of ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride solutions.

GRADES

Available in U-S-P, F-C-C,C-P and technical grades.

HAZARDS

Proves hazardous when consumed in larger quantity

USES

  • Ammonium chloride has vast application in following industries
  • Greek medicine Industry
  • Explosives and textile industry
  • Dying and printing industry
  • Food, bakery and fertilizers industry
  • It is also used in the preparation of many ammonia compounds and electroplating.

TRIACETIN

It is also called glycerol tri acetate.

FEATURES:

  • It is colorless and odorless liquid

FLAVOR

  • It has a bitter taste

DENSITY

  • 1.160(at 20 degree Celsius)

MELTING POINT

  • 258 to 260 degree Celsius

FLASH POINT

  • 149 degree Celsius

SOLUBILITY

Less soluble in water and highly soluble in ether and alcohol

HAZARDS

  • It is highly explosive in nature and is less poisonous

             GRADES

  • U-S-P, F-C-C

USES

  • Tri Ace tin is used as a plasticizer
  • It is used in perfumes, cosmetics, food products, medicines and confectioneries

AMMONIUM NITRATE

FEATURES:

  • Ammonium nitrate is a white crystalline compound

SOLUBILITY

  • Highly soluble in water

DENSITY

1.725

MELTING POINT

169.6 degree Celsius

BOILING POINT

210 degree Celsius

SOURCE

It is prepared by the reaction of ammonia vapors on nitric acid

GRADES

Grades of ammonium nitrate….

HAZARDS:

It Proves to be explosive at very high temperatures. The fire caused by the explosion can be extinguished with water. So it should be stored or kept in a cool away from explosives.

Ammonium nitrate is a strong oxidizing agent.  Chances of fire explosion can be reduced by mixing 10% to 15% ammonium nitrate in it.

The fertilizer manufacturing companies claim that ammonium nitrate  which is used as fertilizer is not explosive.

USES

  • Ammonium nitrate is used in manufacturing fertilizers and explosives
  • It is also used in anti bacterial and insect killing products.
  • This chemical compound is used in freezing mixtures too.

ANTHRACENE

FEATURES:

  • It contains yellow colored that exhibit a blue fluorescence

SOLUBILITY

 

  • ANTHRACENE is highly soluble in alcohol and ether, while it is insoluble in water.

DENSITY

 1.25 ( at 27.4 degree Celsius)

MELTING POINT

  • 217 degree Celsius

BOILING POINT

  • 340 degree Celsius

HAZARDS

  • It is highly explosive

SOURCE

  • It is obtained from antheracin oil

GRADES

  • Commercial ( 90% to 95%)

PRECAUTION

  • It can cause cancer

ANTIMONY TRISULFIDE

FEATURES:

  • It is also known as black antimony or antimony and is present in the form of black and orange crystals.

SOLUBILITY

  • It is not soluble in water but highly soluble in sulfide solutions and acid salt solutions.

DENSITY

  • 4.562

SOURCE

  • It is obtained in its natural form. Only the orange crystalline antimony sulfide is prepared chemically

 

MELTING POINT

  • 546 degree Celsius

GRADE

  • Technical ….

PRECAUTIONS

  • Proves to be explosive when mixed with oxidizing materials.
  • Poisonous in nature

USES

  • It is used in the preparation of yellow pigment and antimony salts.
  • This chemical compound is used in paint and match box manufacturing industry.

AMMONIUM DI CHROMATE

It is also called ammonium bi chromate.

FEATURES:

  • It is present in the form of orange crystals and needles.

 DENSITY

2.152

MELTING POINT

  • Melts on slow heating too

SOLUBILITY

  • Soluble in water

SOURCE

  • Prepared by the reaction of chromic acid on ammonium hydroxide

HAZARDS

  • Ammonium chromate is poisonous in dust and liquid form
  • It causes irritation in eyes and on skin. So it is necessary to keep them away from this chemical compound.
  • It is highly explosive and should be kept away from oxidizing agents and other organic materials.

 USES

  • It is used as a mordant in dying
  • The chemical is used in the preparation of pigments and paint industry…
  • It is also used in chrome alum and artificial fragrances.
  • Photography, lithography and engraving have application of ammonium di chromate
  • It is used in explosives, chromic acid and to clean oil.

BARIUM NITRATE

FEATURES:

  • Present in the form of white shining crystals

SOLUBILITY

  • Highly soluble in water
  • Insoluble in alcohol

MELTING POINT

  • 575 degree Celsius

SOURCE

  • Obtained by the reaction of barium carbonate and nitric acid

GRADES

  • Technical, crystals, fused powder

HAZARDS

  • Poisonous and explosive

USES

  • It is a strong oxidizing agent
  • Used in explosives
  • Also used in ceramics and electronics industry

POTASSIUM NITRATE

FEATURES:

  • It is transparent granulated compound. Also available in powdered from.

TASTE

  • It has a resisting salty taste. It also Absorbs moisture from the air.

DENSITY

2.106

             MELTING POINT

  • 373 degree Celsius

SOLUBILITY

  • Highly soluble in water and glycerin

Less soluble in alcohol

HAZARDS

  • Less poisonous in nature

Highly explosive

  • Upon heating, proves to be explosive.
  • Strong oxidizing agent

USES

  • It is used in explosives and match industry
  • Also used as a fertilizing agent and in glass making.
  • It acts as an oxidizing agent.
  • Also used in stable tempering and food products.

POTASSIUM PERMAGNATE

 FEATURES:

  • It is a striking purple colored compound that gives a blue shade.

FLAVOR

  • It is odorless and has a sweet taste.

DENSITY

  • 2.7032

SOLUBILITY

  • It is highly soluble in water, acetone and methanol
  • Potassium per magnate loses its properties when dissolved in alcohol.

SOURCE

  • It is obtained through the oxidation of  magnate in alkaline electrolytic cell.
  • By treating hot magnate solution with carbon dioxide.

GRADE

  • Available in technical, C-P and U-S-P grades

HAZARDS

  • It is strong oxidizing agent
  • It is also Explosive and catches fire easily and should be kept away from other organic compounds.

USES

  • It is a strong oxidizing agent
  • It is Also used to kill bad odor.
  • Potassium per magnate is also used as bleaching and dying agent
  • This compound s also used as an experimental agent in analytical chemistry.
  • It is Used as an explosives
  • It clears water and air too

PICRIC ACID

FEATURES:

its other names are

Picronitric acid,Trinitro phenol,Phenol trinitrate

SOLUBILITY

  • It is soluble in water, alcohol, ether and benzene.

TASTE

  • It is highly bitter in taste

DENSITY

  • 1.767

MELTING POINT

  • 122 degree Celsius
  • Explodes at 300 degree Celsius

SOURCE

  • It is obtained by nitration of phenol sulfonic acid

GRADES

  • Technical paste and pure paste

PRECAUTION

  • It explodes on heating and striking.
  • Harmful for skin

USES

  • It used is explosives and match industry
  • It is also present in explosive materials
  • Medicine industry and ink industry has application of this compound.
  • It is used in copper aging.

PARA- NITROANILINE

FEATURES:

It is present in the form of yellow colored  needles.

DENSITY

1.437

MELTING POINT

  • 148 degree Celsius

FLASH POINT

  • 198 degree Celsius

SOLUBILITY

  • It is only soluble in alcohol in ether

HAZARDS

  • It is poisonous and explosive in nature
  • It also absorbs trough skin

USES

  • It is used as an intermediate
  • Also in explosive materials

POTASSIUM BISULFITE

The other names for this compound are potassium acid sulfite and potassium hydrogen sulfite

 CHARECTERISTICS

  • It is a white, granulated, shiny powder that smells like sulfur dioxide.

EFFECTS

  • It is less poisonous in nature.

SOLUBILITY

  • It is soluble in water but not in alcohol. 

SOURCE

  • It is obtained by the mutual reaction of sulfur dioxide and sodium carbonate. This process is done by passing sulfur dioxide from the solution of sodium carbonate. After that, the solution becomes concentrated and converted into granules.

GRADES

  • Commercialregent and pharmaceutical.

USES

  • It used as reducing agent for many organic compounds
  • It is also used as an Antiseptic, in bleaching of textile fiber, as a preservative and in the preparation of vitamin.

POTASSIUM META BI SULFITE

Its other name is potassium pyrosulfite.

FEATURES:

  • It is present in white colored crystals or powder

DENSITY

  • Its density is 2.3 and it turns into sulfate when kept in air.

SOLUBILITY

  • It is easily soluble in water and insoluble in alcohol

EFFECTS

  • It is less poisonous in nature

SOURCE

  • It is obtained by heating potassium bi sulfite to a temperature that the water gets dried.

GRADES

  • Technical, F-C-C, regent

USES

  • Anti septic, regent, brewing and alcohol preparation.
  • It is also used to preserve food
  • Acts as an anti-bleaching and anti-oxidant agent. 

PECTIN

 FEATURES:

  • It is present in the form of white powder/ liquid

SOLUBILITY

  • It is soluble in water.

 EFFECTS

  • Harmless in nature

SOURCE

  • It is prepared by separating the inner layer of lemon’ skin or other citric fruits

 GRADES

  • Pure N-F and jelly grades

 USES

  • It is used in the preparation of fruit jellies, food products and emulsifying agents.
  • Also used in the manufacturing of bakery, cosmetic and medicine
  • It is also used as dehydrating agent

TARTARIC ACID

FEATURES:

  • It is present in the form of colorless, odorless and shiny crystals or powder

TASTE

  • It tastes bitter

SOLUBILITY

  • It is highly soluble in water alcohol and ether.

DENSITY

1.78

MELTING POINT

  • 170 degree Celsius

 

EFFECTS

  • It is harmless. 

SOURCE

It is obtained by the chemical reaction of maleic anhydride and hydrogen peroxide

GRADES

CP F-C-C grades

USES

  • It is used in the preparation of Tartar cream.
  • It is used in making of fruit salts, baking powder and photography.

Ceramic, textile and metal industry also use this chemical compound

TRIACETIN

Its other name is Glycerol Triacetate

Features:

color less liquid with a strong fatty smell

TASTE

  • It tastes bitter

DENSITY

  • 1.160 at 20 degree Celsius

MELTING POINT

  • 258 degree Celsius

FLASH POINT

149 degree Celsius

SOLUBILITY

  • Less soluble in water and more soluble in alcohol and either

HAZARD

  • Explosive and less poisonous

SOURCE

  • Obtained by the reaction of glycerin and acetic acid

GRADE

  • USP and F-C-C

USES

  • It is used as plasticizer
  • Also used in perfume, cosmetic and food industry.

GELATIN

It is also known as enamel glue, but is more fine than that.

FEATURES:

  • It is present in the form of white and cream colored powder.
  • It is odorless and tasteless.

SOLUBILITY

  • Soluble in hot water and glycerin but insoluble in organic solvents

GRADES

  • Photographic, Technical USP

SOURCE

  • Obtained from the skin, bones and fiber of the animals

USES

  • It is used in photographic film, light filters, printing ink
  • Also used in food products, textile, cement and match industry

YEAST

FEATURES:

  • It has cantaloupe color and present in granulated form

HAZARD

  • It is harmless

SOURCE

  • It is prepared by the method of cultivation

GRADE

  • Technical, N-F

USES

  • It is used a sweetener and in ethyl Alcohol
  • It is used in bakery products and food industry
  • It is also used to prepare alcohol
  • Also used in preparation of enzymes, Vitamin B and in biochemical research

DEXTROSE

Its other name is glucose, grape sugar and corn sugar

CHARACTERISTICS

  • It is present in the form of white colored powder
  • It has sweet odor and taste

DENSITY

1.544

MELTING POINT

  • 146 degree Celsius

SOLUBILITY

  • Soluble in water not soluble in alcohol

EFFECTS

  • It is explosive
  • It is harmless and beneficial for health

SOURCE

  • It is obtained from corn starch
  • In Pakistan it is the only source to get glucose

USES

  • It is used in infant food, bakery and confectionary products
  • Also used in pharmaceutical and food product industry
  • Alcohol, medicine and caramel are also prepared in using this compound

GRADE                       

  • Technical, USP, BP, Hydrous, Anhydrous

DEXTRIN

FEATURES:

  • It is also known as starch gum

SOURCE       

  • It is obtained by doing chemical reaction on starch
  • Present in the form of white powder and granules

SOLUBILITY

  • Easily soluble in hot water
  • Not soluble in alcohol and either

USES

  • It is used in different formulas of gum making
  • Also used as thickening agent, natural gum and as an alternative to liquid in preparation of penicillin
  • It is also used in explosive, food and bakery products

LEAD OXIDE, RED

it is also called red lead, minimum, and lead tetroxide.

FEATURES:

  • Its color is shinning red

SOLUBILITY

  • It is soluble in acids but insoluble in water

DENSITY

  • 8.32 to 9.16

GRADES

  • Technical, 95%, 97%, 98%

PRECAUTION

  • Its dust is very poisonous

USES

  • It is used to refine alcohol
  • Also used in manufacturing of varnish
  • Also used in glass and ceramic making
  • Ceramic glazing is done using this compound
  • It is present in many explosive materials and in paints that are used to prevent steel from rusting.

ZINC OXIDE

Its other name is zinc white and china white

FEATURES:

  • It absorbs carbon dioxide from air

FLAVOR

  • It is a tasteless and odorless white powder

DENSITY

  • 5.47

MELTING POINT

  • 1975 degree Celsius

SOLUBILITY

  • It is soluble in alkali and acids
  • Insoluble in water and alcohol

EFFECTS

  • It is non explosive and harmless in powder farm

SOURCE

  • It is obtained by oxidizing pure zinc

GRADES

  • Laboratory, cosmetic, technical, BP and USP

USES

  • It is used in explosive’s formula
  • Also used in pharmaceutical, cosmetic, paint, plastic, rubber, ceramic, floor tile and glass making industry
  • It is used in preparation of zinc salts

ZINC CHLORIDE

 FEATURES:

  • It is white colored granulated compound

DENSITY

  • 2.91

MELTING POINT

  • 290 degree Celsius

BOILING POINT

  • 73 degree Celsius

SOURCE

  • it is obtained by the reaction zinc oxide and hydrochloric acid

GRADES

  • Technical, fused, C-P

HAZARDS

  • It causes skin itching

USES

  • It is a catalyst de-hydring agent
  • Fire proofing, wood preserving
  • Present in steel polishing compounds
  • Used in Electroplating and adhesives
  • It is used in medicine and explosive compound
  • It acts as carbosizing agent

SODIUM NITRATE

FEATURES:

  • It is colorless odorless and clear granulated chemical compound

FLAVOR

  • Slightly bitter, salty in taste

SOLUBILITY

  • Soluble in water and glycerin
  • Less soluble in alcohol

DENSITY

  • 2.267

MELTING POINT

  • 308 degree Celsius
  • Proves to explosive at 537 degree Celsius

SOURCE

  • It is obtained by the reaction of sodium carbonate and nitric acid

 USES

  • Acts as an oxidizing agent
  • it is also used fertilizer, glass making, paint and explosive compound making

SODIUM CHLORATE

FEATURES:

  • It is present in the form of odorless and tasteless crystals

TASTE

  • It gives a cooling effect when kept on tongue with a salty taste

SOLUBILITY

  • It is soluble in water and alcohol

DENSITY 

2.49

MELTING POINT

  • 255 degree Celsius

GRADE

  • Technical, crystal and powder

PRECAUTION

  • It is highly explosive and oxidant

USES

  • It is used in paper making, manufacturing of pesticides, match and textile industry
  • It acts as an oxidizing and bleaching agent
  • It acts as an alternative to the potassium chlorate

SORBITOL

 FEATURES:

  • It is a tasteless white crystalline powder that absorbs moisture from air

FLAVOR

  • It tastes sweet

SOLUBILITY

  • It is soluble in water, glycerin, propylene glycol
  • Less soluble in methanol. Ethanol, acetic acid and phenol
  • Insoluble in organic solvents

DENSITY

  • 1.47 at -5 degree Celsius

MELTING POINT

  • 93 degree Celsius

EFFECTS

  • It is harmless

SOURCE

  • It is present in many fruits in least quantity and is prepared through dextrose

GRADE

  • Crystal, Technical, USP, B-P
  • 70% aqueous solution present in commercial form

USES

  • It is used in vitamin C fermentation
  • It acts as emulsifying agent
  • Present in many cosmetic products like toothpaste, creams, lotion and other
  • It is used in tobacco, gelatin, paper and toffee making
  • Present in detergents food products bakery products and urethane resins
  • It is used in textile and pharmaceutical industry also as a stabilizer in vinyl resins

SOYBEAN OIL

Its other name is Chinese bean oil or soy oil

FEATURES:

  • It is a yellow colored fixed drying oil

SOLUBILITY

  • Easily soluble in carbon disulfide, alcohol, ether, chlorophorm

DENSITY

  • 0.924 to 0.929

MELTING POINT

  • 22 to 31 degree Celsius

REFRACTIVE INDEX

  • 1.4760 to 1.4775

FREEZING POINT

  • -15 to -8 degree Celsius

IODINE VALUE

  • 137 to 143

FLASH POINT

  • 282

HAZARDS

  • Explosive but harmless

AUTO IGNITION TEMPERATURE

  • 445 degree Celsius

SOURCE

  • Obtained from soy beans.
  • Edible soybean oil is purified by using fuller’s earth. Whereas the technical grade oil cleansed by chemicals

GRADES

  • Refined, crude, clean and hydrogenated

USES

  • It is used in soap making, high protean food, paint and varnish making
  • Animal food, alkyd resins, margarine, printing ink and plasticizer making

STARCH

 The other name for starch is carbohydrate polymer

FEATURES:

  • It is present in the form of white but unclear powder or small granules

SOURCE

  • It is present in the form polysaccharide in many plants like wheat, corn, rice and potato

TASTE

  • It is tasteless
  • When dissolved in hot water it changes its form

GRADES

  • Commercial, laundry, technical, pearl, regent, edible, USP and powder

USES

  • It is used in many adhesive and gums like gummed paper and tapes, carton and bags
  • Also used in machine coded paper as textile filler and sizing agent
  • It is used paper making food products, bakery product and beauty product making industry.

CITRIC ACID

FEATURES:

  • Its color is white and is present in the form of white crystals and powder

TASTE

  • Its taste is bitter and tangy

DENSITY

1.542

MELTING POINT

  • 153 degree Celsius 

SOLUBILITY

  • Highly soluble in water and alcohol

HAZARDS

  • It is harmless and non poisonous.
  • Highly explosive and catches fire easily

SOURCE                         

  • It is obtained from lemon, and pineapple juice. It is also prepared by fermentation of starch.

GRADES

  • Hydrous, anhydrous, technical, C-P, U-S-P,F-C-C, B-P

USES

  • It is used in the preparation of citrates, flavoring extracts, bakery products, confectionary product and soft drinks.
  • Citric acid is also used in the preparation of foaming drinks, acids, medicines, alkede resins and cosmetic products.
  • It acts as an anti oxidant in the preparation of food products,
  • This compound also acts as a polishing and cleaning agent in stainless steel and other metal.
  • Citric acid acts as a water conditioning agent.

SUCROSE

FEATURES:

  • It is also called table sugar.
  • It is odorless and is present in the form of solid crystals or powder.

TASTE

  • Sweet

SOLUBILITY

  • It is soluble in water and less soluble in alcohol.

DENSITY

  • 1.5877

EFFECTS

  • Highly explosive
  • No harmful effects

SOURCE

  • It is obtained from sugar cane and beet root

 GRADES

  • Regent, U-S-P, Technical and refined

USES

  • It is used to sweeten the drinks and food products like jam, bakery and confectionery products.
  • Sugar has a wide application in pharmaceutical industry
  • Detergents, caramel and cosmetic products making also involve in using sugar.
  • It also acts as an emulsifying agent.

SODIUM BENZOATE

FEATURES:

  • It is present in the form of white, shinning crystals

 TASTE

  • It is odorless and has a very sweet

SOLUBILITY

 

  • Highly soluble in water and alcohol

 

EFFECTS

  • It is explosive and less poisonous

 

SOURCE

  • Comes by neutralizing benzoic acid with sodium bicarbonate

GRADES

  • Technical, U-S-P, F-C-C.

USES

  • It is used to preserve food
  • Acts as an antiseptic agent
  • Also used in pharmaceutical industry, bakery products making, drinks and squashes.
  • Use it in food products but not more than 0.1 %.

SODIUM SILICOSALUMINATE

FEATURES:

  • It is present in the form of fine white colored powder.

 

 

TASTE

  • It is tasteless and odorless

SOLUBILITY

  • Not soluble in water and alcohol
  • Dissolves in acids at 100 degree Celsius
  • Dissolves in alkaline solutions having 10.5 pH

 

HAZARDS

  • Not explosive
  • Less poisonous

GRADES

  • Technical, F-C-C

USES

  • It is used as anti caking agents in food products, and for this purpose it should not be used more than 10%.

SODIUM ALGINATE

FEATURES:

  • It is colorless or light yellow colored powder

SOLUBILITY

  • Becomes thick when dissolved in water.
  • Not soluble in alcohol

EFFECTS

  • Highly explosive
  • Harmless

SOURCE

  • It is obtained from brown seaweeds.

 GRADES

  • N-F-F-C-C, technical

USES

  • It is used in many food products as an emulsifying agent.
  • Also used in ice cream, boiler compound, medicines, textile printing, and, paper coating.
  • Used in water based paints and cement.

SODIUM BISULFITE

Its other name is sodium acid sulfite

FEATURES:

  • It is present in the form of white shinning crystals

TASTE

  • It has sulfur like taste and smell

DENSITY

  • 1.48

HAZARDS

  • It is dangerous to add it in meat
  • Harmful for skin and nail
  • Not explosive

SOLUBILITY

  • Soluble in water
  • Insoluble in alcohol

SOURCE

It is obtained by the reaction of sodium carbonate and sulfur dioxide

GRADES

  • U-S-P, regent, commercial dry.

USES

  • Used in preparation of sodium salts and cream of tar tar.
  • Used in textile industry
  • Preservation of food
  • Acts as an antiseptic, reducing agent.
  • Also used for copper and brass plating

SODIUM BICHROMATE

FEATURES:

  • It is an orange colored granulated chemical compound that is exclusively used in explosives and other chemicals.

DENSITY

  • 2.52 at 13 degree Celsius

MELTING POINT

  • 357 degree Celsius

 

HAZARDS

  • Not explosive
  • Does not catch fire

SOLUBILITY

  • Soluble in water
  • Insoluble in alcohol

GRADES:

  • Technical and laboratory grades

USES

  • Also used in preparation of chromic acid and in anti corrosive compounds
  • Used in paint making electroplating, and preservation of wood,
  • Acts as a chemical reactant

STRONTIUM CARBONATE

FEATURES:

It is a white colored granulated chemical compound

 

SOLUBILITY

  • Less soluble in water
  • Soluble in acids and carbonated water
  • Also soluble in ammonium salts solution

DENSITY

3.62

HAZARDS

It is less poisonous

SOURCE

  • Obtained by the mixing ammonium carbonate or sodium carbonate.

GRADES

  • Technical, natural, laboratory grade.

USES

  • Acts as a catalyst
  • Used in colored TV and different explosive materials.

STRONTIUM CHROMATE

FEATURES:

 

  • it is a light yellow colored chemical compound
  • Keeps metals safe from corrosion and also creates immunity against heat and light.

 

DENSITY

3.84

HAZARDS

  • Poisonous in nature

USES

 

  • Used to prevent metals from corrosion
  • To color poly vinyl resins
  • To make explosives and in electroplating bath.

STRONTIUM NITRATE

FEATURES:

  • Present in the form of white powder

 

SOLUBILITY

  • Soluble in water
  • Less soluble in alcohol

 

DENSITY

2.98

MELTING POINT

  • 570 degree Celsius

BOLING POINT

  • 645 degree Celsius

SOURCE

  • Obtained by mixing strontium chloride and sodium nitrate

GRADES

  • Technical and regent

HAZARDS

  • Poisonous in nature and is an oxidizing agent
  • Can explode upon eating or colliding

 

USES

  • Used in explosives and match making industry
  • Also used as a signal in ships.

STRONTOUM OXALATE

 

FEATURES:

  • It is an odorless white colored powder
  • Uses its original form at 150 degree Celsius

SOLUBILITY

  • Insoluble in cold water

 

HAZARDS

  • Poisonous

 

USES

  • It is used in leather making and explosives.

STRONTIUM TARTRATE

 FEATURES:

  • It is present in the form of white crystals.

DENSITY

  • 1.960

 

HAZARDS

  • It is less poisonous

SOLUBILITY

  • Less soluble in water

USES

  • It is used in many explosive materials.

STRONTIUM OXIDE

FEATURES:

  • It is present in the form of small porous pieces

DENSITY

  • 4.7

 

MELTING POINT

  • 2430 degree Celsius

BOILING POINT

  • 3000 degree Celsius

SOLUBILITY

  • Soluble in fused potassium hydroxide

HAZARDS

  • Explosive in nature

SOURCE

  • Obtained by the decomposition of strontium carbonate.

 

GRADES

  • Powder and laboratory grade

USES

It is used

  • In the preparation of strontium salts
  • Soap making and grease making
  • In pigment making and
  • Explosive materials

STRONTIUM PEROXIDE

FEATURES:

  • It s other name is strontium dioxide.

  TASTE

  • It is tasteless, odorless and white colored powder.

DENSITY

  • 4.56 (A)
  • 1.95 (B)

 

MELTING POINT

  • 5 degree Celsius

 

SOLUBILITY

  • It is soluble in ammonium chloride and alcohol
  • Less soluble in cold water

 

SOURCE

  • It is obtained by the reaction of strontium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide

 

HAZARD

  • It can explode when combined with other organic compounds.
  • Explosive in nature
  • Can also catch fire when heated
  • It is an oxidizing agent

USES

It is used in

  • Antiseptic, bleaching and explosive material

STRONTIUM PERCHLORATE

FEATURES:

  • It is a colorless chemical compound

SOLUBILITY

  • Easily soluble in water and alcohol

 

HAZARDS

  • Poisonous in nature and explosive
  • Can explode when mixed with other organic compounds 

USES

  • Acts as an oxidizing agent
  • It is also used in many explosive products.

STRONTIUM CHLORATE

FEATURES:

  • It is present in the form of white shinning powder

SOLUBILITY

  • Highly soluble in water
  • Less soluble in alcohol

DENSITY

  • 3.152

MELTING POINT

  • 120 degree Celsius

SOURCE

  • Obtained by passing chlorine through strontium hydroxide solution.

GRADES

  • Technical, laboratory

HAZARDS

  • Can prove explosive when comes in contact with other organic compounds
  • Catches fire upon heating and rubbing
  • It is a strong oxidizing agent

USES

It is used in many explosive formulas 

STRONTIUM CHLORIDE

FEATURES:

  • Present in the form of colorless crystals.

 

TASTE

  • It has a bitter taste

 

SOLUBILITY

  • Highly soluble in water and alcohol

 

DENSITY

  • 3.054

 

MELTING POINT

  • 872 degree Celsius

 

BOILING POINT

  • 1250 degree Celsius

 

SOURCE

  • It is obtained by mixing strontium chloride and strontium carbonate.

 

GRADES

  • Anhydrous, technical, laboratory

 

USES

It is used

  • In preparation of strontium salts
  • In electrons tubes and explosive products

 

 

SULFUR

 

FEATURES:

  • It is non metallic element with atomic number 16
  • Atomic weight: 32.06
  • Pure sulfur is present in two forms. A and B (Alpha and Beta)

BOILING POINT

  • 444.6 degree Celsius

FLASH POINT

  • 405 degree Celsius

 

SOLUBILITY

  • Sulfur is insoluble in water in its both forms.
  • Highly soluble in benzene and carbon di sulfide.

EFFECTS

  • It is not poisonous in nature and is explosive in nature.

SOURCE

  • It is obtained in its natural form and found in the countries ;Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Poland, Canada, USA, Mexico, and, Japan

GRADES

  • Present in many grades e.g. technical, rubber makers, N-F, Edible, Refined, pure.

USES

Sulfur is a widely used element. Its discovery brought revolution to many nations. Sulfuric acid, made with sulfur is associated with many other chemicals.

Sulfur is used in many industries. Some of the industries are:

  • Homeopathy, Greek and English medicines
  • Explosives
  • Sulfuric acid and chemical dyes
  • Carbon disulfide
  • Rare vulcanizing and petroleum cleaning
  • Pharmaceutical and insecticides
  • Antifungal, detergent, cosmetic. Rubber and all sulfide type chemicals.

FRUCTOSE

FEATURES:

  • It is also known as fruit sugar or laevulose
  • It is mostly present in honey and seer fruits and sweetest of all kinds of sugar.
  • Fructose is present in the form of white crystals.

TASTE

  • It is odorless but tastes very sweet

MELTING POINT

  • 103 to 105 degree Celsius

HAZARDS

  • It is explosive and non poisonous
  • Beneficial for health

SOURCE

  • Prepared by the starch from fruits and corn

GRADES

  • Technical, edible

USES

It is used in

  • Food products
  • Bakery, confectionery, and medicines
  • And to preserve fruits

FERRIC CHLORIDE

FEATURES:

Its other names are:

  • Ferric tri chloride, ferric per chloride, iron per chloride, black brown solid chemical, iron chloride

DENSITY

  • 2.898

MELTING POINT

  • 306 degree Celsius

BOILING POINT

  • 319 degree Celsius

SOLUBILITY

  • Soluble in water, methanol, glycerol and ether.

HAZARDS

  • Not explosivepoisonous and causes itching on skin.

GRADES

  • Anhydrous96%

USES

  • It is used
  • As mordent agent and an oxidizing agent
  • In photography, medicine and pigments
  • To clean water and in explosive materials

PHOSPHORUS

FEATURES:

  • It is a widely used no n metallic element
  • Atomic number: 15 and atomic weight: 30. 978
  • Present in white, red and black color

We will talk about red phosphorous here

DENSITY

  • 2.34

 

SOURCE

It is prepared by heating white phosphorous at 240 degree Celsius

HAZARDS

  • Explosive

 

USES

It is used

To prepare phosphoric acid and phosphorous compounds

In match and explosive materials making

In manufacturing fertilizers

PRECAUTION

  • It should not be kept in air
  • Keep it safe from rubbing and collision

CALOMEL

FEATURES:

  • Its other name is mercurous chloride
  • Calomel is present as an odorless powder or crystalline substance. Its crystal turn blackish- brown in light.

MELTING POINT

  • 302 degree Celsius

BOILING POINT

  • 384 degree Celsius

GRADES

  • Technical, N-F and C-P

HAZARDS

  • It is poisonous when used in large quantity

USES

  • It is used in
  • Fungicides, electrodes, ceramic painting and explosive materials

COCONUT OIL

It is popular and widely used oil that comes from coconut. Pure coconut contains 65% oil in it.

FEATURES:

  • Its color is white and smells like coconut in its virgin form.
  • The color of coconut oil is pure white in its frozen form
  • To convert one kilogram of coconut oil in to soap, 256 to 264 grams caustic potash and 145 grams of soda caustic is required
  • It contains fatty acids C12 and C15

DENSITY

  • 0.92

IODINE VALUE

  • 7 to 10

MELTING POINT

  • 25 degree Celsius

SOLUBILITY

  • Soluble in alcohol, ether, chloroform and carbon disulfide
  • Gets mixed in water but does not dissolve
  • It is the source of energy in edible form
  • Does not get spoiled in its oure form but spoils when comes in contact with water.

HAZARDS

  • It is harmless and non explosive
  • Many catch fire when heated

INGREDIENTS

Lauric acid, capric acid,myristic acid, palmitic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, and, caprylic acid

GRADES

  • Crude, refined, salon, manila, Malaysia

USES

It is used

  • In food products, bakery products, cocoa butter, soap making cosmetics, detergents, emulsions, cotton dying, fatty alcohols and fatty acids.

 

COPPER SULFATE

FEATURES:

Its other names are:

  • Cupric acid, cupric sulfate, blue stone, and, blue vitriol
  • It is a mixture of copper, sulfur and oxygen
  • Present in the form of blue crystals and powder
  • Turns white when water is removed from it.

TASTE

  • It has a typical metallic taste

 

SOLUBILITY

  • Highly soluble in water and methanol
  • Less soluble in alcohol and glycerin

DENSITY

  • 2.287

BOILING POINT

  • 250 degree Celsius

MELTING POINT

  • 210 degree Celsius

SOURCE

  • It is obtained by the reaction of copper with dilute sulfuric acid

GRADES

  • It is present in three grades:
  • Pure, laboratory, and, technical

HAZARDS

  • it causes itching and is poisonous

USES

  • Copper sulfate has application in following industries:
  • Oil refinery
  • Electric batteries
  • Agriculture
  • Lithography
  • Engraving
  • Synthetic rubber making
  • Iron manufacturing
  • Leather
  • Pharmaceutical and
  • Explosives
  • It acts as an antiseptic agent and a regent in experimental chemistry
  • Also preserves pulp wood and ground pulp, plants and fruits
  • Copper sulfate is used as an electrolyte in electroplating and a mordent in textile industry.

 

CARBOXY METHYL CELLULOSE

Its complete chemical name is Sodium carboxy methyl cellulose..

FEATURES:

Colorless, odorless and harmless powder or granules

SOLUBILITY

easily dissolvable in water

DENSITY

1.59

REFERECTIVE INDEX

1.51

TENSILE STRENGTH

8000 TO 15000 psi

VISCOSITY

1% solution is equal to 2000 cp

Insoluble in organic solvents

Becomes thick and transparent when dissolve in water

pH VALUE

1% solution is equal 6.528

It retains its strength 2 to 10 pH value

SOURCE

It is prepared by the reaction of alkali cellulose and sodium chloro acetate

Also obtained from paper pulp.

GRADES

Crude, technical 75%, High viscosity, low viscosity, pure and semi pure, 99.5+% , UFC, FCC, food grade

USES

  • It is used in
  • Food product
  • Bakery products
  • Detergent
  • Drinks soap
  • Cosmetics
  • Icecream

It also preserves emulsion

It is an important ingredient in the manufacturing of following chemicals

  • Washing liquid
  • Paper coating
  • Emulsions
  • Suspending regent

CREAM OF TARTAR

FEATURES:

  • Its other names are potassium bitartrate and potassium acid tartrate  

COLOR

  • It is present in form of white colored crystals

FLAVOR

  • It has a slightly bitter but pleasant taste

SOLUBILITY

  • It is insoluble in alcohol and soluble in hot water

DENSITY

  • 1.984 at 18 degree Celsius

SOURCE

  • It is obtained from the sediment of grape alcohol.

GRADES

  • NF, FCC

USES

  • It is used in the preparation of following
  • baking powder
  • Tartrates,
  • Medicine,
  • Food products
  • Fruit salts
  • Cosmetics

COPPER CARBONATE

FEATURES:

  • Its other name is copper carbonate basic, cupric carbonate, artificial malachite and mineral green
  • It is present in the form of green colored powder

SOLUBILITY

  • It is soluble in acidic solutions, insoluble in water

DENSITY

  • 3.7 to 4.0

SOURCE

  • It is prepared by mixing copper sulfate and sodium carbonate

GRADES

  • Technical, C.P

HAZARDS

  • Poisonous

USES

  • It is used in the preparation of
  • Pigments
  • Explosive material
  • Pesticide
  • Copper salts
  • Cosmetics
  • It is also used to color brass

COPPER CHLORIDE

FEATURES:

  • Its other name is cupric chloride
  • It is present in the form of brown color crystals and green colored powder

SOLUBILITY

  • It is soluble in water and alcohol

DENSITY

  • Brown colored crystals 3.5
  • Green colored powder 2.5

MELTING POINT

  • Brown colored crystals 620 degree Celsius
  • Green colored powder 100 degree Celsius

SOURCE

  • Obtained by mixing copper with chlorine
  • Also obtained by the reaction of copper carbonate and hydrochloric acid

GRADES

  • Technical, regent

HAZARDS

  • It is a poisonous compound

USES

  • It is used in making of following products
  • Explosives
  • Photography
  • Pigments
  • Electroplating bath
  • It also acts as dying and printing mordent

CAROTENE

It is also known as pro protein .

It is obtained from plants.

It is based on three isomers.

  • Alpha Isomers15%
  • Beta Isomers 8.5%
  • Gamma Isomers 0.1 %

It belongs to a big natural  pigments  class which is known as carotenoids and its molecular  shape much resembles with The Vitamin A molecule.

FEATURES:

  • It is present in the form of red colored crystals

METING POINT

  • ALPHA ISOMERS 188 degree Celsius
  • BETA ISOMERS 184 degree Celsius
  • Gamma ISOMERS 178 degree Celsius

SOLUBILITY

  • It is highly soluble in chloroform, ether and benzene
  • Less soluble in alcohol and insoluble in water

SOURCE

  • It is obtained from palm oil, carrots, soya bean oil, corn oil and alfalfa

USES

  • It is used in pharmaceutical industry, food products and feeds
  • Also used in margarine and butter

CALCIUM CHLORIDE

FEATURES:

It is present in the form of small non-transparent white crystals, available in pieces and flex or in granulated form

Available in 4 grades

  • A grade:
  • Density = 2.15
  • Melting point 772 degree Celsius
  • Boiling point 1600 degree Celsius
  • B Grade:
  • Melting point 260 degree Celsius
  • C grade:
  • USP
  • Density 0.83
  • D grade:
  • Density 1.71
  • Boiling point 200

SOLUBILITY

  • All grades are soluble in water and alcohol

HAZARDS

  • All graders are less poisonous but swallowing any type could be harmful

SOURCE

  • It is obtained by the reaction of calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid

USES

  • It is used as dicing and dust control of roads
  • It is also used in drilling mud’s, freeze proofing, concrete conditioning, paper and pulp industry, pharmaceutical industry, tomato packing, coal and stone industry, hexahydrate and electrolytic cells

CALCIUM ALGINATE

FEATURES:

  • It is present in the form of white or cream powder and also in granulated form.

TASTE

  • No taste and odor

SOLUBILITY

  • It is insoluble in water
  • Soluble in acids and alkaline solution

EFFECTS

  • Harmless

GRADES

  • FCC

PRECAUTIONS

  • It can catch fire but the fire extinguish on its own

USES

  • It is used in pharmaceutical industry, food products, bakery and cheese products
  • It is also used to thicken the ice cream and to pack the fruits in boxes

CALCIUM DIBASIC PHOSPHATE

FEATURES:

  • It is also known as di calcium orthophosphate, bi calcium phosphate and secondary calcium phosphate

 

TASTE

  • It is tasteless, odorless crystalline powder

DENSITY

 

  • 2.306

SOLUBILITY

  • It is soluble in diluted hydrochloric acid, nitric acid and acetic acid
  • It is less soluble in water and insoluble in alcohol

HAZARDS

  • Non explosive and harmless

SOURCE

 

  • Obtained by the interaction of milk of lime and phosphoric acid

 

USES

 

  • It is used in animal feed, bakery products, yeast, as an additional ingredient of food, medicine making and glass production.

CALCIUM PHOSPHATE MONO BASIC

FEATURES:

  • It is also known as calcium bi phosphate, acid calcium phosphate, calcium phosphate and mono calcium phosphate.
  • It is a colorless shinning powder, starts melting when kept in air.

SOLUBILITY

  • Highly soluble in acids and water
  • Its aqueous solution is acidic in nature

DENSITY

  • 2.20

MELTING POINT

  • 100 degree Celsius

 

HAZARDS

  • It is non explosive and harmless

SOURCE

  • It is obtained by mixing di calcium or tri calcium with phosphoric acid.

 

GRADES

  • F-C-C, ceramic, anhydrous, hydrated.

USES

It is used

  • In baking products
  • As a buffer in food products
  • As a mineral supplementary
  • Plastic stabilizers
  • Fertilizers
  • Glass making
  • To retain the pH of malt

CALCIUM PHODSPHATE TRI BASIC

FEATURES:

  • It is also known as calcium orthophosphate, tri calcium orthophosphate
  • It is non transparent, odorless, tasteless and shining powder

DENSITY

  • 3.18

MELTING POINT

  • 1670 degree Celsius

REFRECTIVE INDEX

  • 1.63

SOLUBILITY

  • It is soluble in acids, insoluble in alcohol, water and acetic acid

EFFECTS

  • Non explosive, harmless and non poisonous

SOURCE

  • Phosphate rock, apatite and phosphorite
  • Obtained by the interaction of calcium chloride and sodium tri phosphate

GRADES

  • Granulated, technical, CP, NF, pure, FCC

USES

  • Ceramic making
  • Medicine
  • Calcium acid phosphate
  • Phosphoric acid
  • Polishing powder
  • Animal feed
  • Food product
  • Textile
  • Fertilizer
  • It is also used as stabilizer in plastic making
  • Used as anti caking agent and meat tenderizer
  • It is used to clean sugar syrup and to separate strontium ninety from milk

CALCIUM BI PHOSPHATE

FEATURES:

  • It is also known as calcium hydrogen sulfite and calcium acid sulfite
  • It has particular sulfur dioxide odor with yellow color

HAZARDS

  • It is harmful for skin and hands, capable of burning metals

SOURCE

  • it is obtained by the reaction of calcium hydro oxide solution and sulfur di oxide

DENSITY

  • 1.06

USES

  • It is used as anti color in textile bleaching
  • Acts as a preservative in paper making
  • It kills the bad odor and acts as a anti septic agent

GLYCERIN

CHARECTERISTICS

It is also known as glycerol and glycol alcohol

It is a colorless, odorless and transparent thick compound

FLAVOR

It tastes sweet

DENSITY

  • 265
  • 249
  • 262

MELTING POINT

  • 18 degree Celsius

 

BOILING POINT

  • 290 degree Celsius

 

SOLUBILITY

  • Highly soluble in water and alcohol
  • Insoluble in benzene, chloroform and, fixed oils.

 

FLASH POINT

  • 320 degree Celsius

 

EFFECTS

  • explosive

 

SOURCE

  • Obtained as a by- product of soap making

 

GRADES

  • USP, CP, BP, pharmaceutical, commercial, 99.8 to 99.9 %pure

USES

  • It is used in preparation of
  • Alkyd resins
  • Explosive products
  • Dynamite
  • Fragrance
  • Cosmetics like beauty creams, lotions and shampoos
  • It acts as a plasticizer and to purify tobacco
  • It is also used in printing ink, rubber stamp and copying inks
  • Also used in lubricants and softeners and in high quality soaps

LACTOSE

FEATURES:

  • Its other name is milk sugar
  • It is odorless, white colored powder or solid crystal

TASTE

  • It is slightly sweet in taste

DURABILITY

  • It doesn’t lose its identity when kept in air

SOLUBILITY

  • Highly soluble in water, less soluble in alcohol and in soluble in ether and chloroform

 

DENSITY

  • 1.52

EFFECTS

  • It is harmless

SOURCE

  • Prepared from milk cream
  • Its quantity in cow milk is 5%

GRADES

  • Crude, pharmaceutical, edible

 USES

  • It is used in:
  • Medicine
  • Homeopathy
  • Infant milk
  • Bakery and confectionary products
  • Margarine and butter making
  • Food products
  • Yeast making
  • Edible protein
  • Penicillin
  • Culture media and riboflavin making

LECITHIN

FEATURES:

  • It is light brown or brown compound with the characteristic odor

SOLUBILITY

  • Highly soluble in benzene and chloroform and partially soluble in water and acetone

 

EFFECTS

  • Harmless 

SOURCE

  • It is prepared through soya bean oil
  • It is also obtained from egg yolk, corn and seeds of many vegetables

 

GRADES

  • Technical, bleached, unbleached, plastic, cosmetic, edible

USES

  • It is used as emulsifying, distempering and dying agent
  • It is used in making of anti oxidant, margarine and chocolates
  • Also used in bakery product, animal feed, food product
  • It has application in textile, plastic and soap industry

LITHIUM CHLORIDE

FEATURES:

  • It is present in the form of white crystals
  • Density 2.06
  • Melting point 614 degree Celsius
  • Boiling point 1360 degree Celsius

SOLUBILITY

  • It is soluble in water, alcohol, ether, pyridine and nitro benzene
  • It is the most absorbing chemical for humidity

PRECAUTION

  • Although it is a less poisonous salt but using it as edible salt will be harmful

SOURCE

  • It is prepared by the reaction lithium and chloride

GRADES

  • Technical, 99%, brine, single crystals

 USES

  • It is used in air condition, welding and moldering flex
  • It is also used in dry batteries, heat exchange media, salt bath, soft drink, mineral water and explosive materials

VANILLIN

FEATURES:

  • Present in the form of white shinning crystals with the pleasant odor

DENSITY

  • 1.056

MELTING POINT

  • 81.83 degree Celsius

BOILING POINT

  • 285 degree Celsius

SOLUBILITY

  • It 25% soluble in water, 20 % in glycerin, 50% in alcohol
  • Insoluble in ether

SOURCE

  • It is obtained from vanilla beans

GRADES

  • Technical, USP

USES

  • It acts as a flavoring agent and laboratory regent
  • It is also used in perfume making, food products, drinks and in pharmaceutical industry.

HEXA CHLORO ETHANE

FEATURES:

  • It is present in the form of colorless crystals having camphor like odor
  • It other names are carbon tri chloride and carbon hexa chloride

DENSITY

  • 2.091

MELTING POINT

  • 185O C

BOILING POINT

  • 185O C

SOLUBILITY

  • Soluble in alcohol and ether and insoluble in water

 

HAZARDS

  • It is poisonous in edible form
  • Its dust is also is dangerous
  • It absorbs through skin and causes itching

USES

  • Used in fireworks and explosive materials
  • It is used to cause delay in the process of fermentation
  • Also used as solvent